All castes, creeds, races, groups and classes, clans and tribes must be treated equally. Everyone should have the same chance to grow as a person. In India, all citizens are treated equally. Untouchability has been abolished and it is now illegal to exercise it. He asserts that people deserve equal respect because of their common humanity. The demand for equality has been raised around the world and has influenced the way today`s political regimes are organized. It continues to be raised by struggling groups such as women or Dalits who feel marginalized in our society. It is about providing equal opportunities for all so that they can progress economically. The terms «economic equality» and «political equality» are often used interchangeably. Question 12 What is a Marxist vision of equality? Answer: Marx was the most important thinker of the nineteenth century who diagnosed the development of inequality and the environment in which inequality occurs.
He was an advocate of an egalitarian society and was very concerned about the exploitation of the working class in the hands of the capitalist class in the capitalist system. In his famous book Capital, Marx explained that the theory of surplus value (the share of the worker owned by the capitalist) is the main reason for the gap between the worker and the capitalist. This gap creates inequalities in all areas, i.e. socially, culturally and politically. Economic inequality leads to inequality in all other areas. Question 5 What do you mean by natural inequality? Answer: Natural inequality is the most important aspect of inequality. It is «this inequality that is natural, that is, inequality of skin color, height and sex. Natural inequalities are seen as the result of the different characteristics and abilities with which humans are born. In fact, natural inequalities must be accepted as equal because there is no creation of a man-made environment and they cannot be altered or modified.
If some people are black and others white, it is a natural inequality, likewise, if one is a man and the other a woman, it is a natural inequality. These are passed down from generation to generation and are based on natural conditions. Marx was a great nineteenth-century thinker who argued that private ownership of important economic resources such as oil, land and forests, as well as other forms of property, was the main cause of deep-rooted inequality. He pointed out that private property not only enriches the owners, but also gives them political power. This is called equal opportunity for everyone to participate in the political process. This includes the principle of granting equal political rights to all citizens in exchange for certain universal qualifications. All citizens should have the same political rights, have a similar voice in government operations, and have the same opportunity to actively participate in the political life and concerns of the country. Political equality guarantees all citizens access to the same political rights. One tool to achieve this goal is the universal adult franchise. Universal suffrage for adults was introduced in India. The United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States of America, France and a number of other countries have adopted similar provisions.
Global inequalities have been protected by customs and legal systems that prevent certain segments of society from benefiting from certain opportunities and rewards. To achieve equality, all such restrictions or privileges must be lifted. Question 15 What is socialism? Answer: Socialism is a socio-economic system that wants or wants to establish an egalitarian society by giving everyone their rightful place in society. It had become very popular after World War II in Eastern Europe and later in Asia and some African countries. It aims to achieve the value of equality in a socio-economic environment. Its basic principle is: «From each to his abilities and to each according to his needs». This means equal opportunities for all according to their abilities and talents. Universal adult suffrage is crucial in a democracy because it is based on the principle of equality. It states that every adult in a country has a voice, regardless of their wealth or the community to which they belong.
Affirmative action is a more serious effort to achieve the value of equality. It is based on the idea that it is not enough to establish formal equality by simple law alone. Therefore, certain social protection measures and policy decisions are needed to improve many of the poor. The goal is therefore to correct the unequal order. Economic equality, according to Lord Bryce, is «the attempt to eliminate all differences in wealth by allocating an equal share of material goods to every man and woman.» In order for people to have equal rights, it is sometimes necessary to treat them differently. For this reason, some individual differences may need to be taken into account. In some countries, support measures have been taken to improve equal opportunities. Question 3. What are the essential aspects of the positive aspect of equality? Answer: The positive aspect of equality means the equality of an environment in which all people can have equal access and opportunities for their development in abundance. The main aspects of the positive aspect of equality are: question 6. What do you mean by social inequality? Answer: Social inequalities are widespread in society and worrying. These social inequalities are the creation of social taboos and the social environment.
Society has different perceptions of different situations. People look at people of different caste, skin color, profession and class differently and therefore they are rewarded, which creates an unequal situation. Social inequalities are man-made and unjust and need to be reformed. The term «social equality» refers to the fact that everyone in society has the same status and that no one is entitled to special treatment. The caste system is one of the most important types of inequality in India. Question 8: Discuss social inequality as it exists in India. Maria Zakharova: Indian society is affected by serious social inequalities. People are discriminated against on the basis of caste, colour, region and religion. People of scheduled castes and tribes enjoyed the lowest status in society, like apartheid in South Africa, untouchability afflicted Indian society. The Harijans were considered outcasts and were therefore declared untouchable.
On 10 December 1948, the United Nations (UN) adopted a Charter of Human Rights emphasizing social equality. However, according to Amnesty International, a number of countries have violated these rights in the past. The concept of civil liberty implies that all citizens have the same civil liberties and the same civil rights. All persons should be treated equally before the law. Superiors and subordinates, rich and poor, castes and creeds, skin colour and race, clans and tribes, groups and classes must all be treated equally. The term «equality» refers to the idea that all people are created equal and should be entitled to equal treatment and income. The term «equality for all» is widely taken for granted, but in practice it is not. Treating people with the same respect does not always mean treating them equally. According to feminists, patriarchy is the cause of social inequality between men and women.
Feminists challenge this mindset by distinguishing between «gender,» which refers to the biological difference between men and women, and «gender,» which refers to the different roles that men and women play in society. The idea of equality emphasized that all citizens are politically equal, that all citizens have the same right to participate in political life, to exercise their right to vote, to stand for office and to hold office. Indian society was also a caste and class society, in which the planned caste, tribal members and also women faced unspeakable misery due to the unequal structure of society. When India gained independence, it committed itself to eliminating those age-old inequalities that certain segments of society face. This commitment is reflected and mentioned in the Indian Constitution. Professor Laski explains why economic equality is so important: «Political equality is never real if it is not accompanied by virtual economic freedom; Otherwise, political power is destined to be the servant of economic power. Entrenched inequalities, or those that have remained relatively unchanged for generations, are more dangerous to society.